写作突击:雅思十大万能论证理由 (系列文章之三:击破无理可说的窘境)
xiaopan发布于 2010/8/12 17:19:37 | 14139 次阅读  [][][]
文章来源:朗阁海外考试研究中心 关键词:ielts 雅思 雅思培训 雅思学习 雅思考试
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    凡是关注朗阁海外考试研究中心的研究成果的考生都知道,中国考生雅思写作成绩的平均分是很低的,只有5.2左右,究竟是何原因,大家也耳熟能详,本系列文章将具体从各个方面给考生提供实在的例子,帮考生做到切实的提高。在上一系列中,我们为大家列举了雅思语言的一些特点,帮助考生详细分析了达到6分甚至更高的分数的要求标准并提供了相应的方法。

    其实,剖析雅思写作的评分标准,除了语言是一个非常重要的要求外,文章审题和结构的安排,以及段落的扩展也都是其评分范围所涵盖的。在接下来的系列中,朗阁海外考试研究中心将为大家列举近年的一些真题,从审题,结构安排这些方面统一讲解,并为大家总结了第一类解题方法——让步法。但毕竟这类题目出现的几率并不是占大头的,绝大多数情况下,笔者还是建议考生使用“十大论证原则”这种方法。

十大论证原则
这个概念大家耳熟能详,也是很多老师都比较推荐的方法,究其原因,无非是其比较具有实战意义,即在解题时,通过十个常见的方面来扩张论据素材。下面将十大原则列举如下,并附以例子概括介绍。
1. 经济与就业原则
如“是否要戒烟”
Pros: 烟草行业促进经济发展(promote the economic development),
提高国家税收收入(enhance the tax income of a country)
提供就业岗位(provide the opportunities of employment)
2. 时间与效率原则
如“是否限制飞机飞行”
Pros: 节省时间,提高效率(time-saving, enhance the efficiency)
3. 空间与安全原则
如“是否在社区里建工厂”
Cons: 占据空间,社区变得拥堵(occupy the space, overcrowded)
安全隐患(potential safety hazard)
4. 心理健康原则
如“是否要戒烟”
Cons: 产生心理依赖(psychologically dependent on smoking)
如“旧楼是否被现代化楼房代替”
Cons: 居民对旧楼有感情(be attached to the historical buildings)
5. 生理原则
如“是否要戒烟”
Cons: 有害身体健康,有可能导致肺癌(be detrimental to health, lead to lung cancer)
如“手机的优缺点”
Cons: 有可能导致脑癌(have a potential to…)
6. 教育原则
如“旧楼是否被现代化楼房代替”
Cons: 一些旧楼是教育的绝好教材(a text book of teaching)
如“大学传授知识”
Pros: 奠定研究和就业的基础(lay a foundation for …)
7. 文化原则
如“全球化的优缺点”
Pros: 促进文化的交流和传播(the cultural communication)
Cons: 导致文化个性的消失(the extinct of cultural identity)
产生文化的矛盾和冲突(cultural conflict)
8. 环境和能源原则
如“是否限制使用汽车”
Cons: 空气、噪音污染(air pollution and noise contamination)
能源危机(energy crisis)
9. 道德原则
如“是否拿动物做实验”
Cons: 不人道,太残忍(inhumane, cruel)
10. 权利原则
如“是否拿动物做实验”
Cons: 剥夺动物生存的权利(deprive animals’ rights of living)

例题示范
我们通过一个真题来了解这种方法的使用。
1. Tourism is believed to be a good way of improving a government’s tax income. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of exploring this resource.

通过“十大论证原则”,我们分别将优缺点列举如下:
Pros: 经济与就业原则(对国家和地区政府),心理原则(对旅游者),生理原则(对旅游者),文化原则
Cons: 空间与安全原则(对个人),文化原则,环境原则

通过上述分析,正文的结构安排如下:
{原创范例} Admittedly, there is an opinion that the exploration of tourism exerts negative influences on environmental and cultural aspects.
For one thing, tourists are believed to produce severe environmental pollution, which breaks the ecological balance.
For another, such activities would definitely give rise to cultural conflicts between locals and visitors.

However, on no account can we lose sight that the government, the local residents as well as the travelers themselves gain benefits from the development of tourism.
To begin with, the municipal government is certain to increase the revenue income from this.
Besides, it is obvious that exploiting this resource would provide the local inhabitants with a large number of employment opportunities.
Last but not least, travelers can also broaden their horizon, and relieve the pressure accumulated from work or study.


2. Some people think that using animals for experimentation purpose is necessary for the development of science. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
本题关于拿动物做实验是否有利于科学的发展。在做brainstorming的时候,朗阁海外考试研究中心建议考生可以借助“十大论证原则”,将优缺点列举出来。
Pros: 经济原则,安全原则,生理原则
Cons: 道德原则,权利原则

经过筛选,正文结构安排如下:

{原创范例} Admittedly, there is an opinion that taking animals for the purpose of experimentation is unnecessary.
For one thing, they believe that such activities bring these animals unlimited suffering, which is inhumane and cruel.
For another, a range of animals rights’ protectors are worried that it is a behavior to deprive animals’ rights of living.

However, on no account can we lose sight that animals used for experiment are of great contribution to the development of science.
First and foremost, it is believed that certain kinds of animals, such as mice, share the same features with human beings.
Besides, animals used for experiment are much cheaper than human beings, which reduces the cost on researching.
Last but not least, scientists who use animals to conduct experiment are in the hope to test the safety and effectiveness of newly developed drugs before pilot testing on small group of patients.  

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